ზმნისწინთა ორი ტიპი და მათი ურთიერთმიმართება სვანურ ენაში (სემანტიკურ-ფუნქციური ანალიზი)

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Date
2023
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ივანე ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის გამომცემლობა
Abstract
There are two types of preverbs in the Svan language: so called “prepositionspostposition” (according to V. Topuria’s terminology): ži, ču, sga, ka and basic preverbs: an-, ad-/a-, es-/as-, la-, as well as compound preverbs derived via the combination of these two types. All the functions of the Georgian preverb (route, orientation, derivation of future tense, aspect, assigning a new meaning to the verb) are usually characteristic of both types of Svan preverbs, however, compared to Georgian, their functions are more diverse. Also, there is no complete semantic-functional similarity between the two analytical types; Their spelling is also different. The first type (“prepositions-postposition “), although they are postpositions which are added to the stem when they occur at nouns, but in relation to verbs they are still independent lexemes: morphologically - adverbs, and from the standpoint of syntax a) they appear as adverbial modifier, b) they form a paronomasic phrase, c) in hypotaxic construction they determine the basis for subordination by adding of intensifying particle –i (Georgian –c). The second type of preverbs (basic preverb) in Svan, like in Georgian, is added to the verb only in the anlaut and is never disconnected from it at the modern stage of language development (cf. the first type, with which tmesis is still a common occurrence even today). The difference between these two types of verbs with preverb is manifested from informativeness standpoint, more precisely - from the quality of confirmation of information one: verbs of the first type (“prepositions-postpositions “) verbs are semantically equal to Georgian preverbal forms: in the forms of indicative mood, a narrator conveys confirmed, non-doubtful information for him/her (“will write”, “would write”...) by using these forms. The basic preverbs give the verb the nuance of less categorical, unconfirmed, probable information, where the degree of certainty of a narrator is low; In other words, these two types of verbs with preverbs are opposed to each other by the degree (/level) of confirmation of information, which directly refers to a narrator’s subjective evaluation of the implementation of an action/fact; The degree of reliability of the information from a narrator’s position is depended on which verbal form a narrator will use – with preposition or with basic preverb (or combined one). Just this so called nuance determines the syntactic function by which verbs of the second type (with basic preverb) are opposed to verbs of the first type (with preposition-postposition); For example, future with preposition - postposition ჩახტი/ čwaxṭwi (“will draw”) is semantically equal to that of the corresponding Georgian form, in Svan it is mainly used in parataxis, and in hypotaxis, like in Georgian, a subordinating conjunction is obligatory with it. Since for a narrator, the information he/she conveys is not fully confirmed, that’s why it is necessary to use auxiliary means of albat, “perhaps”, šesaʒloa “probably” type in a simple sentence to achieve complete compatibility during the translation of this type of verbs into Georgian. The mentioned semantics, compared to a simple sentence, is much more pronounced in a compound construction: in the case of using the form with basic preverb, the subordinating conjunction is no longer mandatory in a hypotaxic sentence - the verb itself contains the necessary nuance (which the verbs with preposition-postposition lack, if the above-mentioned forms with -c particle, which, in fact, replaces rogorc ki “as soon as”, are not included); Cf.: ბ‰ზი ჩ‹ღად ჩ…აშდუე ი ლˆყ‰რ დეშ ხოგიჭ / bi čγad čwašdue i lǝr deš xogi - “Tonight it will definitely snow and the roof cannot withstand it.” ბ‰ზი ანშდუი (/ჩ…ანშდ…ი…ნე), ლˆყ‰რ დეშ ხოგიჭ / bi anšdui (/čwanšdwiwne) , lǝr deš xogi - “Tonight [if] it snows, the roof cannot withstand it.” Also, even in the case of using the subordinating conjunction (which is an additional means of hypotaxis in Svan and, in the author’s opinion, is an influence of the literary language), the prepositional form cannot replace the verb with a basic preverb in the subordinate clause, since the style will be completely violated. Thus, both types of Svan preverbs have functions which differ from Georgian preverbs: 1. So called “prepositions-postpositions”: a) appear independently as adverbial modifiers of place, b) form a paronomasic construction, c) in the case of insertion of i (Geo. c) in the form of the particle tmesis, they create such a basis of subordination that no subordinating conjunction (often even a correlate) is needed anymore, and a compound subordination of the archaic type (asyndetic connected sentences) is resulted. 2. a) Verbal forms of the first series with basic preverbs unambiguously express the semantics of doubt-probability, in turn, in the hypotaxic construction, it determines the possibility of conjunctionless connection, since in Georgian the doubt of information or a certain condition is conveyed by means of tu “if”, rom “that”, radgan “because” and similar lexemes (conjunctions). In Svan, based on semantics, this function was performed by verbs with basic preverbs. b) Unlike preverbs of the first type, the verbs with basic preverbs belong to modalized evidential (of epistemic meaning) rows. In the author’s opinion, of the analytical preverbs the separated ones as the parts of independent speech belong to the earlier stage of the language, and the formation of basic preverbs in Svan, as well as in Georgian, should be related to the process of dynamicization of the verb, which was also followed by the expressing function of the grammatical category - evidentiality, that was formed relatively late; By this time evidentiality was developed at the morpheme level in the verbs without preveb, but since the preverb already had the ability to express this semantics, the morpheme did not move in the forms with preverbs.
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ეძღვნება პროფესორ ფარნაოზ ერთელიშვილის დაბადებიდან მე-100 წლისთავს/ Dedicated to the 100th Birthday of Prof. Parnaoz Ertelishvili
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სამეცნიერო შრომების კრებული, ქართველური ენათმეცნიერება, IX, 2023, გვ.: 80-87/ COLLECTED SCIENTIFIC WORKS, KARTVELIAN LINGUISTICS, IX, 2023, pp.: 80-87
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